6.0 Network Fundamentals (15%)

6.1 Describe the purpose and usage of MAC addresses and VLANs

6.2 Describe the purpose and usage of IP addresses, routes, subnet mask / prefix, and gateways

6.3 Describe the function of common networking components (such as switches, routers, firewalls, and load balancers)

6.4 Interpret a basic network topology diagram with elements such as switches, routers, firewalls, load balancers, and port values

6.5 Describe the function of management, data, and control planes in a network device

6.6 Describe the functionality of these IP Services: DHCP, DNS, NAT, SNMP, NTP

6.7 Recognize common protocol port values (such as, SSH, Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, and NETCONF)

6.8 Identify cause of application connectivity issues (NAT problem, Transport Port blocked, proxy, and VPN)

6.9 Explain the impacts of network constraints on applications